22
Oct

Innovations In Computer Science & Engineering – Disruptive Tech Series Part 3


this is the third video of our five-part
series on the most disruptive technologies from five different
technology sectors and today we will take a look at computer related
technologies now granted this is a very wide topic and it was really hard just
picking out five technologies from this very wide area of many different
technologies and there are certainly many many more but for the purpose of
this video we had unfortunately to decide and pick five top technologies so
stay tuned to find out which are in our opinion the top five most disruptive
technologies from the field of computer related science Number 5 Graphene chips now graphene is being every time praised as the holy grail of materials with amazing properties
probably enabling thousands of different applications ranging from ultra strong
materials to much more capable batteries to much more efficient solar cells to
ultra sensitive sensors among many others Graphene is basically a
two-dimensional hexagonal lattice structure of carbon atoms the electrons
in this lattice are extremely mobile yielding an extremely high electric
conductivity while the material has at the same time a very high thermal
conductivity while also displaying semiconductor properties a semiconductor
with extremely high electric and thermal conductivity both much higher than in
silicon would be perfect for computer chips we basically are using silicon
transistor based chips now since decades and reached the clock rate speed limit
of three to four gigahertz already back in 2005 graphene however would enable
clock rates in the terahertz range so at least thousand times faster than the
current silicon based ships but at the same time producing less heat and only
consuming 1% of the electricity of regular silicon chips now only a year
ago could a team at the high repetition rate high frequency terahertz facility
in Germany demonstrate vibrations in Graphene up to frequencies of the terahertz
range but hold your horses there until we can play games in 32k resolution with
activated ray tracing at 500 FPS we still have to be a bit more patient
because until we can build GFETs, that is graphene-based field effect transistors
there are still a few challenges that need to be overcome namely we would need
to be able to produce ultra-thin layers of graphene without any contaminants
pollutants metallic residues cracks or holes and these GFETs would of course
be the basis for graphene chips now the first consumer products based on this
graphene field effect transistor technology will probably not be
available before 2025 probably somewhere between 2025 and 2030 realistically but
when they come they will severely disrupt the silicon based transistor chip
market as we know it Number 4 oh nice now my voice is finally normal again
number 4 Bitcoin or blockchain technology oh how long I have waited for
this finally I can talk about Bitcoin so I started with Bitcoin six years ago
back in 2013 when I thought to myself like wow what the hell this is like a
major disruption happening this is an amazing new technology this blockchain
technology and I just had to get involved and I learned as much as I
could about Bitcoin back in that time so why am I such a die-hard proponent of
Bitcoin and why do I think that bitcoin is such a superior technology far
superior to the normal monetary system based on fiat currencies that we use
nowadays ok first of all it is decentralized so it’s not governed by a
single state central authority central bank or like a central governing agency
secondly by using Bitcoin you are your own bank
you are not reliant upon trusting other banks to handle your money because we
have seen plenty of times in history that trusts sometimes doesn’t work
and thirdly money can be sent anywhere around the whole world in any quantity
you want be it five cents or five million dollars very fast very reliable
and it will be cryptographically verified by the entirety of the Bitcoin
network therefore compared to a centralized system this system is truly
democratic the markers say and you can see every transaction openly in this
decentralized ledger which we call the blockchain in our opinion Jixuan and
my opinion Bitcoin is a type 1 monetary system now let us explain we are on our
way to become a type-1 a global civilization meaning type 1 on the
Kardashev scale this is a global civilization we see the signs already
everywhere that this is happening the process of globalization cannot be
stopped anymore what are other examples for such type 1 technologies well for
example the Internet itself is a type 1 communication system or we have a type 1
language English even though Jixuan and me are not native English speakers we
can speak to you with English and you can be understood everywhere around the
world with English so English is an emerging type 1 language and this is the
same with Bitcoin Bitcoin is in our opinion a type one global currency
system it will be the first global decentralized currency system of
humanity now contrary to the old fiat currencies which are by nature
inflationary bitcoin is deflationary because only 21 million Bitcoin will
ever be able to exist in the future of humanity and we are currently already at
18 million of those 21 millions in circulation so only 3 more million to go
now those Bitcoin in circulation are created by a process called mining a
miner is rewarded with Bitcoin with a certain probability for solving complex
calculations in a process called mining that’s why a
miner is mining and therefore called a miner miners miner mining roughly every 4 years the mining reward is halved the next
time in May 2020 so the inflation reduces every four
years until at some point no more bitcoins can be mined when all 21 million
bitcoins are in circulation Bitcoin is thus very rare as gold
a digital gold if you will all Bitcoin metrics show exponential growth the
number of users and of transactions is growing exponentially many still have old
preconceptions against Bitcoin but let us remind you that the number one
currency used for criminal activities is by far still the US dollar now
understandably central banks really hate Bitcoin therefore the mainstream media
of course has a negative bias therefore you read a lot of anti Bitcoin FUD all the time so for people interested in the monetary aspect Sebastian is very active on TradingView and regularly posts price
predictions we will put the link to tradingview in the description Bitcoin will brutally disrupt the banking and the FinTech industry as we know it
and we are convinced that bitcoin will become the first global type 1 currency
in 10 to 20 years Number 3 quantum computing this is together with graphene another holy
grail of computing in a classical computer we have bits of information
clearly consisting of 0 & 1 indicating either yes or no but in the quantum world
everything is fuzzy let’s for example look at an electron
which has a magnetic momentum called spin now classically the spin could
either be up or down but here the spin is actually in a superposition of up and
down so it has a mixture of both states at the same time finally the time has
come to show off our math skills because Jixuan and me you know we didn’t study
physics and mathematics respectively without any reason so I hope you
understand that we have to show off a bit now so now we can employ the Dirac
or Dirac formalism of quantum mechanics and we can write down this superposition
of states as a quantum mechanical wave function called psi no not this psy
here this psi so we can write psi as a times the vector 0 plus b times the
vector 1 for the math nerds under you this is a 2-dimensional vector in
Hilbert space now the complex coefficients a and b represent the
probability with which you find the electron either in state 0 so spin down
or 1 so spin up now the sum of the absolute square of a and b of course has
to be 1 because the probability to find an electron in either the state up or
down is of course 1 100% probability because it can only have those two
states ok are you still with us or have you fallen asleep or clicked away
admit it you have clicked away so this one electron system where the electron
is in a superposition of spin up and spin down defines one qbit ok one qbit
now in order to really do some quantum mechanical calculations in a quantum
computer we need more than one qubit of course and we need to entangle particles
this is called quantum mechanical entanglement where in the simplest case
we take two electrons and quantum mechanically entangle them so that they
have a quantum mechanical coherence which we can write mathematically as
this formula here so now we have two electrons so they can both be spin up or
one is spin up one is spin down or they are both spin down or one spin
down and the other spin up those are the four probabilities denoted by 0 0 0 1 1
0 & 1 1 are you still with us hey hey we had to crank up the math
level a bit too we were accused that this channel is too dumb down and too
simple so now you get your math but we’re almost there we’re almost there
promised so now we would of course want to do a calculation or a computation
with this 2 qbit system right the simplest one would be a so called
controlled not-gate so this not gate would only change
the state of an electron if the first electron is in the position 1 so spin up
so therefore 0 0 would remain 0 0 0 1 would remain 0 1 but 1 0 would become 1 1 and 1 1 will become 1 0 actually not so difficult right so here we already have
now the principle for a simple quantum mechanical computation in a quantum
computer based on a two qbit system okay now you’re released from math ok it
was a bit I admit it was a bit hardcore but we had to do it once at least once
ok but of course we would like to have many more qbits because the more qbits
we have the more complex calculations we can perform so in 2019 the most powerful
quantum computer in existence today is the IBM Q system’s line of quantum
computers with an insane 53 qbits but when will we see quantum computers
become more powerful than the classical ones this event is called quantum
supremacy by the way well there are different theories on when this event
will take place but the consensus seems to be that it will happen at around 60 qbits plus minus so it’s actually really around the corner and
Google even claims to have achieved quantum supremacy this here is
pre-recorded because currently we are in America so if a new quantum computer has
achieved quantum supremacy by the release of this video please don’t be
angry with us either way when quantum supremacy comes it will certainly be
disruptive on how we currently perform simulations of complex systems such as
weather forecast and the evolution of galaxies and the universe and please let
us know if you’re interested in more such physics based topics we could then
devote an entire episode to quantum computers in the future or even do
episode on other hard core physics topics such as black holes the expansion
of the universe higher dimensions superstring theories and stuff like that number two AI artificial intelligence fortunately scifi movies have already
done all the explanation for us in a nutshell AI is next number one okay this would be maybe a bit too
shot so let’s at least look at the definition of what AI is artificial
intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines
especially computer systems these processes include learning so the
acquisition of information and rules for using the information reasoning so using
rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions and self correction
particular applications of AI include expert systems speech recognition and
machine vision AI can be categorized as either weak or strong weak AI also known
as narrow AI is an AI system that is designed and trained for a particular
task strong AI also known as artificial general intelligence is an AI system
with generalized human cognitive abilities when presented with an
unfamiliar task a strong AI system is able to find a solution without human
intervention we can categorize four types of AI type one are reactive
machines such as deep blue and google’s alphago they were designed for narrow
purposes and cannot easily be applied to another situation type 2 have limited
memory these AI systems can use past experiences to make future decisions
such as Tesla’s full self driving chip type 3 would have the understanding that others have
their own beliefs desires and intentions that impact the decisions they make this
kind of AI does not exist yet type 4 would be self-awareness this is the
final and highest category the one from sci-fi movies such AI systems have a
sense of self therefore consciousness machines with self-awareness understand
their current state and can use this information to infer what others are
feeling this type of AI also doesn’t exist yet but it’s only a matter of time
until we will also have type 3 and type 4 AIs and this might be a very good or a
very bad day number one human machine interface
artificial intelligence has huge potential for many great things but
unfortunately could also destroy humanity if no strict rules are set in
place before unleashing a super advanced AI now in order to prevent that we
basically have only one choice to create a symbiotic relationship with the AI
demigod fortunately our favorite person on planet earth has of course again
foreseen this and therefore created Neuralink a link which would allow us
to merge with the AI so not long ago Elon and the amazing team at Neuralink revealed
the first brain machine interface the neuralink N1 so in the short term
neuralink will enable paralyzed people to move again blind people to see again
and many other amazing things but in the long run it will actually enable us to
merge with AI to merge with the AI Overlord if you will and thus to prevent
a humanity extinction event and of course we strongly encourage everyone to
watch the neuralink presentation we put of course the link into the
description so by making us part of this AI Overlord by creating some kind of
symbiosis we make ourselves basically inexpandable therefore the AI would cut
off one of their own arms or legs by removing us so this is the idea behind
merging with an AI in order to prevent a humanity extinction event but before
getting there the cool thing is we can also control keyboard mouse or other
devices with our mind and this is certainly very disruptive to the mouse
or computer components or peripheral components as we know them today I think
your quantum computer formulas got a bit out of hand I’m really sorry but I
studied physics and I also you know I had a you want to show off
okay I wanted to show off a bit sorry so just as a reminder currently we are on a huge road trip in the US so unfortunately we won’t be able to upload our two videos per
week but we promise once we come back in early November we will continue our
regular two news videos per week upload schedule okay so ciao

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16 Comments

  • Raven Bishop says:

    Both of you are on top of things. Thanks

  • Jim Myers says:

    I love your shows! This one is great! I would recommend doing a few in depth physics pieces on several subjects besides the ones you mentioned. For instance, what do you know of plasma physics and cosmology? Are you wedded to the big bang theory or are you open to a different interpretation of the data? What is your take on single wheeled personal mobility devices like the "It" and other more recent iterations?
    I am not so worried about AI as you seem to be. I've been developing computers and software since four bit sequencers were the latest rage. The systems we develop will never have any connections we don't give them and which can be easily disconnected. No AI system would be able to "upload" itself to the network because no network available could process it's commands once it was there; it would only be data in a file. And besides, we have no reason to believe that such an AI would be hostile to us or not. That is why care IS taken with advanced systems. We just don't know where it will end up, but we can make sure it can't hurt us along the way.

  • Jules Edgelord says:

    Your comments on bitcoin/ blockchain is the best summery explanation that I’ve seen to date. Thank you!

  • Emmanuel Mahuni says:

    Woooooow this is the first time someone has actually explained Quantum computers in a very simple and understandable manner! Wellllllldone Saba!

  • Emmanuel Mahuni says:

    Self-aware AI has been invented, though it's still at its infancy. I will post the link if you guys are interested. It means I have to search for it. It models itself in a simulation then applies its model to any given body type etc without any human intervention by bubbling the body's senses and abilities first so that it is aware of what it is like (become self-ware); this is much like a baby bubbling their bodies. It then completes tasks if so asked when it has figured itself out (now aware of its own body). Eventually this kind of robot can pretty much be like a human or exceed coz this is how we all started out. You then end up preserving that body (the self) you found yourself in (which you now tie yourself to as you) by making sure that you are in good books with others and that others don't violate you. You also make sure that the body isn't dying because at the very least during the bubbling you quickly learnt what is bad for you and what is good for you. The idea here is you feel hunger, need etc. So this kind of AI is already here, we hope they won't see us as threats really soon. Actually 3 and 4 sound to be nearly the same and is already here, but not yet in its fullness.

  • Steve Martin says:

    Sebastian says, “Admit it…you have clicked away.” I laughed out loud. 😉

  • Steve Martin says:

    Will bitcoin survive quantum computing? I’ve heard access to quantum computing can break blockchain security.

  • s3xyScorp says:

    I got bad news for ya
    Bitcoin is a BIG CON
    A Ponzi scheme devised to Scam people of real Money
    When many people buy Bitcoin with Real money price goes Up.

    "Mining" Bitcoin doesnt create anything valuable!
    PRODUCTs that people create and sell or trade to others do

    Thats why money value folows each countrys GDP

    More advanced productive countries have more VALUABLE currency

    Bitcoin has NO value like fiat currency has.

  • Niklas Paulsson says:

    You say computer technology and show me a screen full of php code.
    PHP is a technological atrocity that is best classified as a computer virus, not a technology.

    Please see /r/lolphp for more information.

  • Stoff Fpv says:

    your best episode yet

  • frizstyler says:

    Legit video. But please no specialized calculations. Few people understand

  • Dragonice Lakeoffire says:

    Quantum computers can break block chain. Plus the US Government is not happy about it. Poloniex is already being banned from the US.

  • JohnnieGarner says:

    Hi, guys! Again, as usual, you have made a brilliant video! Let me also say I always enjoy your playful approaches, dare I say both sophisticated and cute! Now for observations.

    Yes, graphene use is important, but it is part of nanotech which keeps expanding vastly further in significance.

    I like the idea of bitcoin, but I wait to see its reliability. One concern I have is that it is hard to believe that an upper limit of the number of coins is enforceable. People are so clever I have to think that unlimited “mining” would be very possibly happen long-term, driving coin value down. We shall see.

    Since Dirac and chromodynamics I think physics has provided a sort of crutch to understanding sub-particle physics. The idea of “wavicle” is a fudging of phenomena. We resort to statistical concepts of probability to address our imperfect understanding. The only advantage of quantum computing seems to be that entanglement implies faster-than-light interactions. So the real advantage of quantum computing is not “probabilities” but the many orders faster speed permitted in computing. This is good, but I think deeper physics will someday make even greater advances.

    As for AI, a complex narrow AI system is quite understandable as an elaborate music-box sort of tech. The music from a music-box comes from the original composer or musician, not the gears or encoded medium of notes. It is also what I would call a value-free or mechanical system. General or true AI, to reflect human complexity must implement the idea of value as found with living things. The only viable definition of the idea of “value” I have ever heard, and I have looked around quite a bit, is from Ayn Rand. She wrote “a value is something which one acts to gain or keep.” Such a simple formulation, but if considered extensively, it is decisive in philosophy and AI. I believe it is really new territory to go there, but I am working on it. A Turing test works for an elaborate music-box. An entity driven by values would have judgment which has no pre-set outcome, which has at least a passing resemblance to free will. The case can be made that who we are, our identities, are in fact our value-systems: what we love, hate, and our basal requirements to remain alive. True AI would have a value system. Fearing something like the Terminator imputes values or original music to music-boxes. I do not see the danger Elon and others visualize. AI is just another powerful tool, but can be controlled by prudence, other AI, and real thinking. And if the AI has a value system, then we can make those values resemble Asimov’s Rules of Robotics, which would make them safe.

    As for Human/Machine interfacing, I see it as either just as a prothetic item such as nerve splicing like reconnecting a broken spinal chord or mechanical eye or, on the other hand, a real integration of intelligence. First of all, prosthetics and auxiliary functions like a built-in calculator chip in our brains would be useful, but still are music-boxes. Since I do not believe AI is a dire threat, that motive to avoid destruction would be not present. As possible enhancement of our thinking fundamentally, that means we would become part of a value system. But if we like our value system, why or how would be suppress our values. If that suppression does not occur, then would then see a sort of value co-processor, to wit, an advisor. I do not see “merging” as possible or desirable in any meaningful way. I think we shall see only prosthetics or co-processing as the future for this interface idea. What is far more likely to be desirable than such a merging notion is the very high likelihood that we will improve human brain function medically and incorporate more efficient education to actually become more than we were or are today. That future is bright, especially if aging is conquered!

    Well I hope you like all this, but I mean it as a respectful suggestion for further thought.

  • Jixuan & Sebastian says:

    Thanks as always for watching 🙂 and thanks for all the interesting comments, we are reading them all 🙂 so did we miss any disruptive technology or would you add one?

  • Jim Meeker says:

    Jixuan has the best quantum particle impression! Yes, bring the science, bring the physics!

  • robcheerful says:

    clicking away 😅

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